The chart below illustrates a variety of materials and the wavelengths at which they transmit.
Here are detailed data sheets on quartz and sapphire.
"Which IR (Near IR or Far IR ) carries more thermal energy?"Photons at shorter wavelengths of IR carry more energy. So all other things being equal, will produce more heating on an absorbing surface.
"While traveling through the IR transparent lens will be there any damage to the lens?"Any infrared energy absorbed by the lens will produce some heating. Anti-reflective coatings are commonly applied to lens systems to reduce absorption and improve the transparency.
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